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TitleKazniva dejanja na temnem spletu in njihov (ne)učinkovit kazenski pregon
TitleCriminal offences on darknet and their (in)effective prosecution
AuthorBrlič, Vesna
Subject(s)kibernetska kriminaliteta; temni splet; TOR; prikriti preiskovalni ukrepi; NIT; memex; »honeypot« pasti; preiskava elektronskih naprav; elektronski dokazi; jurisdikcija; cybercrime; darknet; TOR; undercover investigative measures; NIT; memex; honeypot traps; electronic device search; electronic evidence; jurisdiction; info:eu-repo/classification/udc/343.3/.7:004.056.53(043.3)
Abstract

Temni splet je virtualni prostor, ki omogoča izvrševanje kaznivih dejanj na daljavo po vsem svetu na relativno preprost in anonimen način. Enostaven dostop, težka identifikacija uporabnikov, pestra ponudba blaga in storitev, možnost plačevanja le-teh s kripto valutami ter neuspešen kazenski pregon so okoliščine, zaradi katerih je temni splet s svojimi črnimi virtualnimi tržnicami postal zlata jama za izvršitelje kaznivih dejanj. Kripto valute ob potrebnem znanju in zadostni previdnosti uporabnika namreč skoraj popolnoma onemogočajo preiskovanje kaznivih dejanj s pomočjo toka denarja. Izvršitelji kaznivih dejanj pa vendarle niso edini uporabniki temnega speta, razlogov za njegovo uporabo je več in niso nujno kriminalne narave. Tako ga uporabljajo novinarji, prebivalci držav, v katerih oblast onemogoča dostop do informacij iz zunanjega sveta ali z njimi manipulira, in osebe, ki želijo brskati po običajnih spletnih straneh z večjo mero anonimnosti. Sprva skrajno neučinkovit kazenski pregon kaznivih dejanj na temnem spletu se je v zadnjih letih bistveno izboljšal. Za to so v največji meri zaslužni razvoj tehnološko sofisticiranih orodij za identifikacijo uporabnikov, prilagoditev zakonodaje za uporabo le-teh s strani organov pregona in večletne izkušnje na tem področju. Ker tehnologija je in vedno bo korak pred pravom, je pomembno, da se zakonodaja, zlasti na področju prikritih preiskovalnih ukrepov, ki so pri kibernetskih kaznivih dejanjih nepogrešljivi, tudi pravočasno prilagaja tehnološkim spremembam. Kibernetska kriminaliteta je aktualna tema, o kateri se je v Sloveniji do sedaj vse premalo govorilo. Tudi za slovenska sodišča so kazniva dejanja na temnem spletu relativno nepoznana. Z njimi se sicer že nekaj časa soočajo sodišča drugod po svetu, v Združenih državah Amerike je tako prišlo že do vrste obsodilnih sodb, v Evropski uniji pa imajo tovrstne izkušnje predvsem nemška in nizozemska sodišča.

Dark Net is a virtual space that enables committing crimes in anonymity, at a distance and with worldwide reach. Easy access, difficult identification of its users, diverse offer of goods and services, accepting cryptocurrency payments and unsuccessful prosecution are factors that make Darknet with its dark virtual markets a criminal paradise. By using cryptocurrencies wisely and cautiously, prosecution of criminal offences through money flow can be almost entirely prevented. Nevertheless, criminals are not the only users of Darknet, there are many reasons for its use that are not necessarily of criminal nature. It is used by journalists, citizens of countries where governments prevent access to or manipulate with information from the outside world, and other individuals who simply want to browse ordinary webpages in a more anonymous way. In the last few years, formerly ineffective criminal prosecution of such offences has evidently improved, mostly due to technologycally sophisticated tools for users’ identification, legislation alignment to enable use of such tools for prosecution purposes and multiannual experience. Technology is and always will be a step ahead of the law. Therefore it is crucial that the legislation, especially regarding undercover investigative measures which are indispensable part of cyber crime investigation, adapts timely to rapid technological changes. Cyber crime is a pressing issue, unfortunately in Slovenia much less discussed as it should be. Courts all around the world, on the other hand, have been facing this issue for a while now, in the United States of America for instance, there has been many convictions. As far as the European Union is concerned, such cases are more or less limited to Germany and the Netherlands.

PublisherV. Brlič
ContributorŠepec, Miha
Date2019-06-27
Typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Identifier
Identifier
Identifier
Languageslv
Formatapplication/pdf
Rightshttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
AudienceStudents
SourceMaribor